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MACROMARKETING: A New Age of Marketing  

2008-10-21 12:12:30|  分类: 课程教学与交流 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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By Pocholo Neri
Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large . All companies have its own marketing department even countries have their own marketing. The reason for such is that this part of the organization are the ones responsible in communicating and relaying their respective messages to the buying public.
Over the years, Marketing has evolved from a very broad perspective to something that is more specific. At present there are a lot of newly introduced concepts that are continuously updated in terms of its definition, scope and limitations. One of them is called Macromarketing.
The concept of Macromarketing started with a planned yearly convention to be held. This was started in the 1950’s and was lead by the late Wroe Alderson. Noted by a lot as the “Father of Modern Marketing”, he diversified the way people look at the field of marketing.
Upon his death, a new breed continued trying to explain what Macromarketing is. During the 1970’s, Bartels and Jenkins defined Macromarketing as follows :
“Macromarketing should connote an aspect of marketing which is "larger" than what is otherwise considered….It has meant the marketing process in its entirety, and the aggregate mechanism of institutions performing it. It has meant systems and groups of micro institutions, such as channels, conglomerates, industries, and associations, in contrast to their individual component units…the social context of micromarketing, its role in the national economy, and its application to the marketing of noneconomic goods. It has also meant the uncontrollable environment of micro firms”.
Similarly, Shelby Hunt further specified :
“Macromarketing is a multidimensional construct, refers to the study of (1) marketing systems, (2) the impact and consequence of marketing systems on society, and (3) the impact and consequence of society on marketing systems (p. 8; see also Hunt, 1977) Fisk (1981) added that (macro)marketing should be viewed as social process, as (1) a life-support system provisioning technology, with concerns about (2) quality and quantity of life-goals served by marketing, 2 (3) a technology for mobilizing and allocating resources and (4) is concerned about the consequences of marketing—the spillover effects of marketing—for those who may not seek or be aware of the intended or unintended activities of marketers.”
Since it is a decentralization of the broad marketing spectrum, people get confused on when it is macromarketing and when it is micromarketing. Hunt and Burnett on their 1982 study entitled “The Macromarketing/Micromarketing Dichotomy: A Taxonomical Model” made a number of contributions in their paper, the major one being an empirical effort to determine which types of research studies should be considered macro in nature and which ones micro.

(1) The level of aggregation: 
      The study of a total marketing system of a society is macro; 
      The study of a society’s total consumption system is macro; 
      The study of intermediate marketing systems (including channels, retail and wholesale systems and industries) is a mixture of macro and micro; 
      The study of individual organizations and individual consumers is micro;
(2) The perspective taken:  
      When any marketing unit of analysis is investigated from the perspective of society, the investigation is macro;
      Whenever an issue is examined from the perspective of the ?rm, the research is micro.
(3) The “consequences on” or affected unit of analysis: . 
      The study of the consequences of the total marketing system on society is macro; 
      The study of the consequences of intermediate marketing systems on the total marketing system is macro
      The study of the consequences of individual-organization marketing systems on intermediate marketing systems is a mixture of both macro and micro.

These studies further specified which marketing strategies fall under macromarketing and which under micromarketing.

After clarifications, scholars established the Journal of Macromarketing (JMM) where further developments on the topic of Macromarketing were established. This was the venue used by macromarketers in order to deliver advances discovered in their field. They were governed by a board that are composed of deans, department heads, professors and other distinguished scholars .

Even with the given venues, there are still problems being faced in the field of Macromarketing. Although there are courses offered in the said field, the resources are still limited. The reason for such is that the main focus of researchers are in the managerial and methodological aspects of marketing. The reason for such is that these areas are most popular since people believe, especially capitalists, that profit maximization goes above all else and if these studies cannot maximize profit for the firms, then they just have to stand back.

Companies tend to focus on what works and how long it will work and although Macromarketing is used, these researchers do not want to go beyond where they could benefit.
I personally think that macromarketing is still a work in progress. Experts in this field needs to find ways in order to shift the paradigm from marketing as tools for managerial and method purposes and on towards how to affect or how to achieve companies’ goals.

As stated, “macro” is broad. Further specification and classification will help scholars not only to entise more practitioners in the field but also increase awareness for the discipline.

REFERENCES:
1. The web-site of the American Marketing Association as approved October 2007.
2. Bartels, Robert and Roger L. Jenkins. 1977. “Macromarketing,” Journal of Marketing, 41 (4):17-20
3. Fisk, George. 1981. "An Invitation to Participate in Affairs of the Journal of Macromarketing," Journal of Macromarketing, 1 (1): 3.
4.Shapiro, Stanley 2006. “Macromarketing: Origins, Development, Current Status and Possible Future Direction”

                                                                                                                                 文:奈里  030081404

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