注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

郭毅的博客

组织与战略

 
 
 

日志

 
 

社会成本:关于伦理与尊重  

2008-10-29 23:12:52|  分类: 课程教学与交流 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 

 

有一句老话:一盎司的预防胜过一磅的治疗。这似乎是对未来做出长远打算,而对于社会成本道理是相同的。

社会成本在经济学中的定义是一笔私人的和外部的成本。私人成本是由产品的购买者向销售者支付。外部成本,也称外部经济效果,它的支出远远超出了私人费用。支付外部成本的并不是买方,而是除买方外的其他人。这些人由于外部环境的原因不得不支付成本,而不论这种外部性是不是有货币价值。

很多公司支付这些费用,但是也有很多并不这样做。公司之所以需要支付费用的原因在于,他们应该不仅一直要对其股东负责,并要对其利益相关者负责。当一个公司的业务影响到另一个公司,它要承担一定的社会成本或社会义务。

例如在一个牛和农作物的例子中,牛的生长要依靠草地,随着牛的增长,无论是有意还是无意,都会破坏到周边的农作物。因此,随着牛的生长,农民必须联合起来,共同承担这种可能破坏他们生意的成本。但是,这种可控制,有很多假设的环境只是一个理想的状态。而现实状况要复杂的多,很多费用都没有计入成本。

知识产权方面也是如此。知识产权是一个法律范畴,保护如音乐,文学,艺术作品,发明,标志,名称,图像和商业设计等的原创性,包括版权,商标,专利和相关权利。在知识产权法的保护下,持有这些抽象财产的人具有唯一具有使用专有权,能够使用并创新这些产财。

但问题是如果没有支付这些成本。拒绝支付知识产权成本的行为盗版就会产生。他们会生产复制品,冒用标志并不为之复出任何代价。在大多数情况下这种现象会产生。

社会成本问题仍是一个尚待解决的谜。要解决这些道德问题的关键在于解决其他问题,如腐败,法律效力,执行程序,问题漏洞等。为了公平的解决这些问题人们应具有道义和责义创造完美净和竞争性的商业环境。

 

Social Costs: A Matter of Ethics and Respect

An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure. It is a saying that had been going on for ages. It is true in essence. It is plausible looking at long-run scenarios. With regards to social costs, it is still the same.
Social costs in economics is defined as the sum of both private and external costs. Private costs are the costs paid by the buyer of goods to the seller. External costs, which are also known as externalities, goes beyond the private costs. Externalities are costs that other people, not the buyer, are forced to pay due to external circumstances and hence, can be monetary in value or not.

A lot of companies pay these costs and a lot do not. The reason why firms need to pay is they should always need to be responsible not only to its shareholders but also to its stakeholders. When one company’s business affects another, it has some social costs or social obligations.
Consider the example in one of the papers, the cattle-crop case. Cattles grow on a grass environment. As it grows, whether on purpose or not, it destroys the crops that are around it. Therefore, given that a cattle grower and a farmer have lots side by side each other, the cattle grower has some social costs as burden and had to pay the farmer for ruining his business.

But this in an ideal state, a controlled environment, a scenario with a lot of assumptions. In real life its more complicated. A lot of times these costs are not accounted for.
This is true in the case intellectual property rights (IPR). IPR is a legal field that refers to creations of the mind such as musical, literary, and artistic works; inventions; and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce, including copyrights, trademarks, patents, and related rights. Under intellectual property law, the holder of one of these abstract properties has certain exclusive rights to the creative work, commercial symbol, or invention by which it is covered.

But the problem is the costs are not paid for. There is another party, the pirates, who refuse to pay what is just for those IP holders. The create replicas, using the logos and not giving royalities, the social costs that they incurred, correctly. At most cases, they do not pay at all.

The problem of social costs is still a mystery yet to be solved. A lot of factors affect why the consequences of breaking these ethical practices lie on solving other problems like corruption, effectiveness of laws, their applications, loopholes and the like. In order for equality to be reinstated, ethics and respect are needed from everyone in order to have a perfectly clean and competitive business environment.


Pocholo Neri (奈里)
030081404

  评论这张
 
阅读(231)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017